On Webs of Influence by Nathalie Nahai, III

Click here for Part I + Part II

41GR24xvVRL._BO2,204,203,200_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-click,TopRight,35,-76_AA300_SH20_OU02_Part III: Sell with Integrity

Who shall set a limit to the influence of a human being? – Ralph Waldo Emerson

… when something comes along that can do the hard work for us, we storm the gate and practically swear our allegiance at the click of the button. Amazon’s rating system demonstrates this beautifully. Not only do these handy, user-contributed reviews solve our research needs (providing a one-stop shot – no more buyer’s remorse, no more time lost to interminable research), but they have also been shown to increase the level of satisfaction we actually experience when purchasing such a reviewed item.

On Webs of Influence by Nathalie Nahai, II

Click here for Part I + Part III41GR24xvVRL._BO2,204,203,200_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-click,TopRight,35,-76_AA300_SH20_OU02_

On Part II: Communicate Effectively

When it comes to being persuaded by a source of information, we tend to respond most positively to people we percieve as likable, similar to ourselves, and credible.

+++

“Aesthetic effects begin with universal reactions, but these effects always operate in a personal and cultural context.” – Virginia Postrel, Cultural Critic

+++

From ancient cave paintings to Disney animations, every culture throughout history has created art that represents life through symbolic, hyperbolic forms. Why? Because we have limited attentional resources, so are hard-wired to prefer ‘supernormal’ stimuli. If we extract only the key, defining features of a subject (such as a slim waist, full bosom, and round hips of a reclining nude) our brains can ignore any superfluous information and instead focus on the salient features. In fact, neurons that specialise in facial recognition actually fire more rapidly and strongly in response to caricatures of people’s faces than when looking at the real thing.

+++

The way in which we react to colour can be strongly influenced by our cultural background. For instance, the colour one nation considers sacred may have an entirely different connotation elsewhere, and as such, the meaning (and hence persuasiveness) of a colour depends greatly on its historical context. To give you an example, in Western Judeo-Christian cultures, the palette of gold, red, white, and blue/purple traditionally denoted opulence, power, and authority. Why? These colours were originally derived from rare, precious pigments, so were expensive to acquire. Hence, over time, they came to signify wealth and high standing.

Beyond specific colours, a culture’s overall preferences regarding colour combinations can also vary dramatically. Just look at the difference between India, with its love of highly saturated, bright melanges of colours, and the Nordic countries, which favour a more muted palate, and you’ll see a veritable jigsaw of cultural colour preferences begin to emerge.

+++

… women were more sensitive to saturation and brightness than men, possibly because some women are tetrachromats (they have four types of colour-perceiving cones in their retinas instead of three, meaning they can percieve up to 100 million colours. Yikes).

On my mind 07.11.14

Just a weekly round-up of some cool + interesting things online.

brain_etymology

|Etymological Map of the Brain via Neuroskeptic|

// Where was this course when I was at uni?

// If you’re a woman who is 13 pounds overweight, you could be losing $9000 per year in income

// The World’s most powerful women in 2014

// Speaking of Beyonce, Harvard Business School students put together a case study regarding the release of her latest (secret) album to examine the business, logistic, and ramifications of the surprise release.

// I love Instagram so much – my accounts du jour include TextsFromYourEx and ByeFelipe, where women can share screenshots of abuse on dating platforms.

// It’s hanging out with a friend who believes you can do anything, and wants you to do much better. Um, yes please.

// If wanting to know the difference between club soda, seltzer, and tonic water is wrong, I don’t want to be right.

// What do women want? Why aren’t male strippers sexy? Questions, questions, questions.

// Underground stories: Did you know Athens metro is one of the top ten best subways in the world?

// What to do when your friends get along better with each other than with you.

// Why is it so difficult to disrupt healthcare?

// You are the anti-Cupid. That’s me. Just walkin’ around pulling arrows out of lovesick idiots.

 

 

On counting your blessings: October 2014

October buzzed with adrenaline and ended with a KILLER HALLOWEEN BANG!

The beginning of the month was marked by several important professional meetings and by Social Psychology exam stress.

2014-11-04_2125

The irony of this image is that it is the one topic that didn’t come up, and I had to blag my way through the last exam question. I’m grateful it’s over and I’m moving on to more interesting modules.

This month saw a marked increase in my sense of patriotism for Greece. I walked around Athens with my mom following a nameday/post-exam Hammam treatment, discovering Anafiotika and some very cool street art along the way.2014-11-04_2136

I took a tour of the Eydap main property and found an old archived photograph of Eydap workers in 1920, in the underground Botiati tunnel which transfered water from Marathon Lake to the Galatsi water treatment plants, along with a Life magazine cover from December 16th, 1940, in honour of Greece’s Oxi Day, I wrote a blog post about Greece for travellers, and I discovered the I’m an Athenian app which I will of course force onto all of my visiting friends.

PicMonkey Collage

I attended MIT’s Enterprise Forum StartSmart in Greece and celebrated my brother’s achievements and his new company, Owiwi, a Greek start-up that is serious about gaming. So proud to be Greek this month!

And then, of course(!) there was Halloween! I can’t remember the last time I’ve been so excited about dressing up, but the excitement had been building all month. I’ll admit, my costume was a bit obscure, but dammit if Hecate isn’t just the coolest/baddest witch around! Next year, I’ll go for something simpler, but the party was great, everyone went all out, I got to do some really fun make-up looks for my friends, I got a little bit better at handling my worst fear realized by standing next to not only a clown, but a killer one at that.

PicMonkey CollageNot to mention… I quit smoking one year ago this month. So many good things.

Other highlights:

freddo cappuccinos at Mosaiko 🌻 girlie chats over red wine 🌻 saying goodbye to friends travelling to foreign shores 🌻 Lucky cuddles 🌻 Cookies on repeat! 🌻 experimenting in the kitchen: homemade sweet potato falafels, stir-fried rice beefy t bowl, soy/lime-blasted salmon + mango chilli salad, roast pumpkin 🌻 relief from exams 🌻 starting Child Development + Science of the Mind modules 🌻 turn down for what  (aka my new favorite song) 🌻 Ellen + Matthew McConaughy 🌻bloody Mary’s 🌻 salt + chocolate 🌻 bird migrations 🌻 learning about how pets reduce stress levels (as if you needed to tell me) 🌻 Amaretto sours 🌻 lazy homemade brunches 🌻

On my mind

What I Watched

Gone Girl
Kissing Jessica Stein
Obvious Child
The Honorable Woman

What I Read

Daughter

What I Wrote

On the contributions of phenomenology + social psychoanalysis to social psychology
On feminism, embodiment, Gone Girl + identity
On a Blogger’s Guide to Greece
On a Short History of Myth by Karen Armstrong
On Psychology Case Studies: Halloween Edition
On writing: A Letter to my Lungs
On Hecate: The Original Witch

On Hecate: The Original Witch

 Goddess of magic, witchcraft, childbirth, crossroads, the moon, souls of the departed, necromancy

Guardian of the Household

Lady of the Beasts

Protector of everything newly born, shepherds, sailors, the homeless, the destitute, the oppressed

hecate1|Deharme|

Known as: Darksome Mother; Aphrattos (‘the nameless one’); Skylakagetis (Leader of Dogs); Pandeina (‘the all-terrible’); Brimo (‘the angry’, ‘the terrifying’); Apotropaios (one who protects, blesses and banishes evil); Phosphoros/Luciferous (Light Bearer); Propolos (show-er of the way); Propalaya (Guardian of the Gate); Koutrophos (Nurse to all living things); Angelos (Divine Messenger)

Lovers: Hermes, Triton, Phorcys, Aeetes

Children: Scylla + other monsters, Medea, Circe, Eleusis, Aigeialeus

Symbols: Hecate’s Wheel; torches; three; crossroads; keys

Animals: dog; horse; serpent; polecat (ferrets); dragon; cat; owl; woman

Fumes: sweet, virginal odors; aloes; camphor; civet; honey; menstrual blood; myrrh; storax; peppermint

Herbs: aconite; almond; chickweed; garlic; hazel; mandrake; moonwort; mugwort; oak; onion; opium poppy; ranunculus

Gems: crystal (quartz); moonstone; opal; pearl; star sapphire

Colors: Silver, Black, Purple

Tarot: Threes; High Priestess; The Moon

Tools: dagger; yoni; cauldron; the key

hecate2

|Visionary Revue|

If I had to give a quick description of Hecate (Ἑκατη in Greek, meaning ‘worker from afar’ and possible origin of the name Ekaterini) I would say she was the original witch and a protector of the outcasts; an admirable ancient archetype of a strong and powerful woman.

Hecate was a virgin goddess, which obviously doesn’t mean what you think because, as you can see, she had many lovers and children. A virgin goddess merely means that she was unwilling to sacrifice her independence for the sake of marriage. In fact, there were several such virgin goddesses including Athena, goddess of wisdom, and Artemis, goddess of the hunt, whom Hecate was frequently compared to (and often confused with). Her virgin goddess status was highlighted by her love of solitude; she enjoyed walking through the roads at night and visiting cemeteries during the dark phase of the moon.

“…she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition.” | Wikipedia|

She has been described as beautiful and luminous; this quality was probably what made her a moon goddess, despite the fact that her kingdoms were actually three-fold: earth, sea, and sky.

It is unclear who her parents were. Some say it was Perses and Asteria (Titan goddess of the Star, which would explain her luminosity; otherwise she was just practical and carried torches), whilst others say Zeus and Hera. Or Demeter. Or Leto. Hey, the guy got around. What is definitely true is that even though she was of unknown pedigree, she was most definitely a Titan and not a god.

Which makes Zeus’ gift to her all the more impressive: She was the only other god, besides himself, and certainly the only (remaining) Titan, who had the power to give or withhold anything from humanity at her discretion. If she felt that the mortals were undeserving, she could withhold any and all blessings as she pleased. Likewise, she could grant wealth, victory, wisdom, and good luck to sailors and hunters. It seems that Zeus trusted her to be fair, careful and just with her power. Alternatively his gift was a political gesture following her involvement in the war against the Gigantes (she slew Clytius with fire), or even her refusal to get involved in the war between the Olympians and Titans. Whatever the case, she was honored and revered by all immortals.

Interestingly, over the course of history, her reputation as a strong, glorious goddess was tarnished, and more recent images depict her as an old haggard witch stirring a cauldron.

hecate3

|Mari-na|

Animals

Hecate is associated with several animals, including she-dogs, horses, and black cats. Her chariot is pulled by dragons.

Owl // The owl accompanied Hecate on her travels and acted as her messenger. Whilst Hecate was not really known as the goddess of wisdom, this symbol of wisdom served to recognize a special kind of knowledge she held; as a result of her farsightedness and curiosity for information typically ignored by most people (trivia?), she knew things others did not.

Sacred Dogs // Hecate was so closely associated with black dogs back then, that if you saw one in a cemetery, you would have thought it was the goddess herself. In fact, her approach was always accompanied by the howling of hounds. It is unclear when her hellhounds were acquired. Strangely, the Ancient Greeks thought it was wise to offer dogs as sacrificial gifts, though I cannot understand the rationale of that if she loved dogs so much. She also kept a black dog formerly known as the Trojan Queen Hekabe. Legend has it that the Queen was one of Odysseus’ captives after the fall of Troy, and during the voyage back to Greece, she murdered a Thracian King and was subsequently stoned; she decided the only way out was to leap into the sea where Hecate found her and made her her bitch.

Polecats (ferrets) // The tale goes as follows: When Alkmene started having contractions as a result of the impending birth of Hercules, Eileithya (Birth-Goddess) and the Fates conspired to keep her in birth pains as a favor to Hera, who ordered the action on account of her jealous rage – the father of Hercules was no other than her husband, Zeus. As we’ve already established, this guy was a total womanizer. In any case, by remaining seated with their arms crossed, Eileithya and the Fates fulfilled Hera’s wishes. At this point, Galinthias, Alkmene’s nurse and childhood companion, fearing for her friend’s life and sanity as a result of the pain, ran to Eileithya and the Fates and tricked them by saying a boy had been born despite their efforts, and therefore they had to default. This caused them to immediately uncross their arms, causing Alkmene’s pangs to stop and therefore enable the birth of Hercules. Galinthias discovered pretty quickly that pissing off the Fates was a bad idea. Their anger was exacerbated not only by the fact that they were double-crossed, but by a mere mortal no less! As a result, they took away her womanly parts and transformed her into a polecat, giving her a grotesque way of mating; i.e., being mounted through the ears and giving birth through the throat. Hekate felt sorry for this creature and for this transformation, and adopted the polecat as a sacred servant. Of course, the alternative version goes that the polecat Hecate kept was originally Gale, a witch who Hecate herself had transformed as a punishment for her careless behavior and abnormal sexual proclivities.

Serpent // Usually worn as a crown.

Symbols

hecate5

|Wikicommons|

Hecate’s Wheel // It represents the three aspects of the Goddess: Maiden, Mother, Crone. It is a potent symbol in modern-day witchcraft, and reflects Hecate’s heritage as a guardian of the crossroad before becoming goddess of magic. The shape is based on inferences made from ancient texts regarding a serpent-shaped maze, a symbol for the power of knowledge and life.

Cauldron // Only through her dark cauldron can we see the light.

Three // She was often depicted with three heads: horse, serpent, boar, as she was said to be able to see in all directions, across space (crossroads) and time (past, present, future) – this means that she was also consulted frequently as an oracle.  Crossroads come from the Latin term trivia, meaning tri (three) + via (ways). As mentioned above, she represented all three stages of life.

Torch // She was the only goddess to carry two torches, the others carried only one. With her torch, she illuminates the Unconscious, the unseen, and reveals its treasures. She guides those who are seeking to understand mysteries.

Keys // As the goddess of entrances, she served three functions: to establish boundaries in order to protect the inside from the outside; to help travelers set out or return to the entranceway; to watch over the actual process of entry. She protected from spiritual enemies rather than physical ones (which were actually under Athena’s purview). Of course, as gatekeeper to the entryway, she held a key. As her power grew, her key began to symbolize not only actual doors but the means to open and close the gates between Earth and the Underworld, as well as other realms in general, allowing spirits entry and exit.

hecate6|Mitchell Nolte|

The Search for Persephone

When Persephone was kidnapped by Hades, only Helios and Hecate witnessed the event. As a result, Hecate, by order of Zeus, assisted Demeter in her search for her daughter, guiding her through the night with flaming torches, a potent symbol of the goddess. Once Persephone was found and returned to her mother, Hecate became Persephone’s minister and companion in Hades. It is interesting that Hecate never told Demeter what she had witnessed and instead used it as an opportunity to advance herself in the Underworld.

The Underworld

Once Hecate assumed this role of minister and companion in Persephone’s life, she became a deity of the Underworld. Blessed by Hades to rule over the souls of the departed, her reputation as a spirit of black magic flourished. By being in the company of the sleeping and the dead, she accepted and felt comfortable amongst ghosts and other social outcasts. She was both honored as the Protector of the oppressed and the fringe and feared as a spectral being who would send demons and phantoms from the lower world to crossroads, tombs, and near the blood of murdered people in the night. She ruled and tormented these demons/spirits in equal measure. She would also teach magic and sorcery to brave mortals who would wander after dark with the souls of the dead. The Harpies were also under her reign, making her the cause of nightmares and insanity.

Hermes, Lovers + Monsters

Working with Hades, it made sense for Hecate to bump into Hermes. Whilst famous for being an Olympian and messenger of the gods, his day job was actually guiding the dead to their final resting place by leading them from their bodies to the Underworld. (Fyi when Persephone was abducted by Hades, it was Hermes who flew down to the Underworld to retrieve her.) So in this role as guide, Hermes complimented Hecate’s role as minister, making their relationship dualistic; he would guide souls down to the underworld, she would lead them back up as ghosts.

They also shared a lot of other common attributes. They were both associated with magic, sorcery and witchcraft, known by many names and forms (such is the power of magic). They both had three aspects and were frequently referred to by similar epithets (including Angelos – The Divine Messenger). They were both deities of crossroads who guarded doorways and temple entrances. And they could both travel between all three realms: earth, sky, sea.

Also, they are both animal lovers, and are particularly linked by serpents and dogs. As we already know, Hecates arrival to the mortal world from Hades was heralded by the dog s ‘baying into the night’. Therefore her arrival incites dogs to bay, creatures over which Hermes has dominion as the god of animal husbandry and guard dogs. Perhaps he was warning those who might cross her path and be beyond his protection of travelers.

It seemed as though Hermes was associated with various Underworld ladies, such as Daeira (who birthed Eleusis) and Brimo. But appearances can be deceiving, for several of these ladies were actually Hecate herself, operating under an alias (she probably wanted to go ingonito). Daeira was identified as Hecate through their joint connection to the Eleusian Mysteries, and Brimo (which means ‘the angry, the terrifying’) was frequently used to characterize Hecate’s. Therefore, if these associations are true, this means Hecate and Hermes were lovers. And that they had a child together, Eleusis.

What a wonderful story for Hermes, the Father and King of Magicians and Hecate, the Queen Mother of Witches.

She was by no means a loyal woman, but from what I’ve read, she lay most frequently with Hermes. She also had many children, many of which were monsters. Scylla, daughter of Phorcos, for example, was born beautiful and spent her time as sea nymph until she started competing with Circe for a man, who subsequently transformed her into a monster. However Circe herself was also Hecate’s daughter, as was Medea, both prominent sorceresses who learnt magic from their mother.

Despite the fact that both Hermes and Hecate had several other lovers and children, I feel that as a couple they have been grossly underrepresented in art.

 hecate4|Durand Gallery|

 

Legacy

Aside from giving me crazy inspiration for Halloween costume, I believe that the legacy of these mythological figures is quite potent. Hecate’s legacy, her story, is a reminder to accept change and transitions. You could say she that she allows us to venture beyond what is familiar and safe, and travel to the scary places of the soul. She uses her torches to guide you. She teaches both tolerance for the oppressed, yet reminds us to remain just – not a ‘bleeding heart’. These spiritual ideals are what makes myths so powerful.

I strongly believe that mythological figure, so-called witches, and astrologers were the first psychologists. But that is another post for another time. Speaking of witch (pun intended): Isn’t it weird that witches ride brooms?

Also, thank you Hairpin, for creating this list of spooky witchcraft and magic museums to visit.

Click here to find out your Tarot Birth Card.

Happy Halloween.

tumblr_muzdi1Byyt1slvo0po1_500

|Heaux Culture + PicMonkey|

On writing: A Letter to my Lungs

8120729479_high_1351469416.28

Source: Unknown

Dear Lungs,

One year ago today, I quit smoking.

It was completely unplanned. I had always intended to quit, but I had no idea it when that elusive ideal would become reality. Life always takes you by surprise.

As you know, Lungs, I have tried to quit several times before. I tried quitting back in 2007 on New Years Eve. That was a quick descent into failure; at a party two days later, I decided that smoking that one cigarette would complement my vodka-soda quite nicely thankyouverymuch.

Then, I quit to climb Machu Picchu in 2010. That was never a full commitment; I fully intended to hold the habit a little while longer. So when I found out that (contrary to my thinking at the time) I would have been better off at high altitude had I continued to smoke, I lit that baby right up, at 2500 meters in the Andes. Poof.

Finally, there was that one time I quit for 3 months because I promised a friend I would quit by 25. He was a staunch anti-smoker and insisted with equal vigour that I was going to die (pff) and that the office smelled every time I came back from my cigarette break. But what did he know?

It was ok, because who was I harming, really? I knew I was a rare creature: a considerate smoker. When he complained about the smell, I promptly switched to menthol cigarettes and smints. I always, always asked people if my smoke was bothering them. People even complimented me on this. They called me “The Most Considerate Smoker Ever”. When I started working in Greece, no one advocated non-smoking offices more than me.

But I wasn’t being considerate to you, was I?

Look, I can’t lie. There are times smoking has been nothing short of great. Were it not for ciggie breaks at work, I probably would have never met some of my favorite people. And, let’s call a spade a spade: smoking feels damn good with a drink.

Also great? The act of smoking. The gesture of the hand. The blowing of the smoke. That puff. It feels a little dangerous. It feels like I’m in some film-noire spy thriller playing the femme fatale with all the power. Power…. What I didn’t feel in life, I felt with cigarettes.

Yeah. Cigarettes helped me out alot. Smoking is great for social awkwardness, you know? Even Rory Sutherland said: When you can’t smoke, if you stand and stare out of the window on your own, you’re an antisocial, friendless idiot. If you stand and stare out of the window on your own with a cigarette, you’re a [f*cking] philosopher.

You see, I thought smoking made me a philosopher and therefore not socially awkward. It also allowed me to be sad. If you’re standing in a corner heartbroken, no one gives a damn. It’s not because people are heartless. It’s because by not having anything to attract attention to yourself with, sadness is repelling by default. But if you’re smoking, then you’re the “cool” sad girl men are drawn to. Smoking made sadness sexy. Such was my rationale, even though I didn’t know it at the time. And guys that are attracted to sad girls like the kind I was have issues of their own. There are no heroes there.

This was my anthem. And sometimes this, when I was feeling more upbeat about dying one day because I killed you.

This time, it’s different. This time, it has stuck. I am 100% commited to you.

Yes. I toy with the idea of starting up again when I’m an old lady with purple hair and have lived my life. I ask to smell smoke when I’ve had that bit too much to drink at weddings. I even have tobacco-scented perfume.

Yes. I also know I blame you… alot. For not being able to ingest oxygen fast enough into my body when I’m running. For not being able to hold that note as long as I would like when I’m singing in the shower. For my stress when I can only achieve quick and shallow breathing.

But it’s not your fault, really. It’s mine. I’m expecting too much too soon, and we have a lifetime together dear Lungs, so let’s just put up with each other’s moments of weakness ok? In turn I will resist the temptation because, you know what? I’m happy about it. Seriously, how disgusting is this? I much prefer knowing that you are pink and huge and vital and safe inside my ribcage (as opposed to black and dying).

Happy anniversary dear lungs. Remember when you used to breathe with cigarettes? I promise I’ll keep taking care of you. I promise I’ll keep giving you fresh air.

So maybe it’s not that one year ago today I quit smoking. It’s that one year ago today, I started taking care of you.

Breath well, Lungs. Breathe deep.

Here’s to many more happy years together.

Love,

Kaiti

On Psychology Case Studies: Halloween Edition

On self-cannibalism: In 2012, researchers at the University of Athens reported a case of autophagia. The patient in question was a 66-year-old man who mutilated and ate his own fingers as a result of severe diabetic neuropathy, impulsivity, and social isolation. There was a marked improvement in his impulsive biting behavior upon medication prescription.

On vampires: Whilst real vampires do not exist, an obsession with drinking blood known as clinical vampirism (also known as Renfield’s Syndrome) does. In 1983, a case study report describes the behavior of four such vampirists, including John George Haigh, the ‘acid bath murderer’. They typically displayed relevant behavior from childhood by cutting themselves, eventually dreaming of and/or drinking their own or others blood. They also associated with the dead and had wavering identities. Usually they were intelligent with no history of pathology in the family. Crucially, females are unlikely to assault others for blood, however the same cannot be said for men, making them potentially dangerous. History has shown that vampirism may be a cause of unpredictable repeated assault and murder, and should be looked for in violent criminals who are self-mutilators. No specific treatment is known.

On being possessed: After Karen Byrne had brain surgery at 27 to control her epilepsy, she developed Alien Hand Syndrome. By severing her corpus callosum (which incidentally cured her epilepsy), her left hand started behaving erratically, attacking her in 2010. Whilst a rare and unlucky side effect of this type of surgery, her condition has been brought under control with medication.

On killer clowns: On December 13, 1978, the police entered the home of John Wayne Gacy, aka “Pogo the Clown”, a celebrated child entertainer. What started as a collection of incriminating evidence such as child pornography, handcuffs, rubber dildos, and ropes, ended as a horrific criminal legacy. The police eventually found nearly thirty bodies on Gacy’s property, as well as several other in nearby areas, such as the river. He used his costume to attract his victims. Gacy was found guilty after a short trial and sentenced to death by lethal injection. During his time in prison, he painted. Whilst he argued multiple personality disorder and sought an insanity plea, no brain abnormalities were found. Clinicians posit that his actions were the result of his childhood experiences (he suffered seizures and was hospitalized repeatedly as a result of his father’s abuse) as well as his repressed sexuality. He was executed on May 10, 1994.

On the living dead: After an attempted suicide, a 48-year-old patient developed Cotard’s Syndrome. In other words, he believed his brain was dead. Using a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner in 2013, neuropsychologist Vanessa Charland-Varville was able to scan this brain.  This revealed substantially reduced activity in the “default mode network” in the front and temporal brain regions responsible for our sense of self and consciousness. However, the patient was also depressed and on a heavy drug regimen, so it is unclear whether this distinct brain activity occured as a result of Cotard’s or something else.  Specifically, do his deluded beliefs create unusal patterns of brain activity? Or does his abnormal brain activity influence his beliefs? The question remains.

On nightmares:  An 11-year-old boy reported terrifying auditory and visual hallucinations of Voldemort in 2008 for three straight days after a high fever. He did not realise his hallucinations were not real and was therefore extremely frightened. His neurological and medical exams came back negative, however an MRI scan showed abnormal signs in the boy’s brain stem, specifically near the region implicated in REM sleep. In line with peduncular hallucinosis and taking consideration of the potential effects of his REM sleep, it is speculated that he was literally dreaming whilst awake. Thankfully, his nightmare condition disappered after treatment with immunoglobulins.

On Halloween: Many people’s worst fears are related to and exacerbated by Halloween, including the fear of Halloween itself, known as samhainophobia.  I’ve had a really tough time finding specific case studies for these, however there is ample resarch on overcoming phobias, particularly for spiders (arachnophobia). Other fears include fear of pumpkins (cucuribitophobia) and fear of ghosts (phasmophobia).

halloweencity

|via|